Endnotes

1 Being a member of the Commission does not imply agreement to every aspect of the proposal, but rather only a participation in the process, plus endorsement of the need for some version of a White House Council on Boys and Men. Members with institutional affiliations are signing as individuals, with no implication that their institution shares their personal goal. The Commission is grateful to the research assistance of Sara Vigneri and Jaclyn Colletti of Men’s Health magazine and the highly effective and continuing assistance of Leticia Salazar of the Boy Scouts of America.

2 Arne Duncan, fielding questions at the offices of Education Week, Bethesda, Maryland, November 30, 2009.

3 Alliance for Excellent Education. “How Does the United States Stack Up? International Comparisons of Academic Achievement” Fact Sheet, March 2008. “Today, the United States’ high school graduation rate ranks near the bottom among developed nations belonging to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). And on virtually every international assessment of academic proficiency, American secondary school students’ performance varies from mediocre to poor.”

4 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

5 Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in
School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

6 Department of Education: 2009 Tables and Figures http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2009menu_tables.asp. Table 268. Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2018–19 http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_268.asp. See also http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2000menu_tables.asp. Table 248. Earned degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1869–70 to 2009–10. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d00/dt248.asp The graph and the calculation for total degrees were done by Mark Perry, professor of finance and business economics at the University of Michigan’s Flint campus.

7 Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, The American Teacher 1997: Examining Gender Issues in Public Schools, p. 3. Cited in Christina Hoff Sommers, The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000, p. 36.

8 National Center for Educational Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Report 1. http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/

9 Richard Whitmire, Why Boys Fail: Saving Our Sons from an Educational System That’s Leaving Them Behind. New York: AMACOM, 2010.

10 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

11 Leonard Sax, Boys Adrift: The Five Factors Driving the Growing Epidemic of Unmotivated Boys
and Underachieving Young Men. New York: Basic Books, 2007.

12 National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), Report 1. http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/ Average Scores and Achievement-Level Results in Mathematics by Gender, Grades 4 and 8. Average Scores and Achievement-Level Results in Reading by Gender, Grades 4 and 8.

13 Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

14 Walter S. Gilliam, “Pre-kindergarteners Left Behind: Expulsion Rates In Prekindergarten Programs.” Foundation for Child Development Brief Series No. 3, 2005. New York.

15 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

16 U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 1967 through October 2007. Table 109. Percentage of high school dropouts among persons 16 through 24 years old (status dropout rate), by sex and race/ethnicity.

17 Twenty-Fifth Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Figure 1-20, Disability category by gender for students age 6 through 12: males comprise 67% of the disability and Figure 1-21, Disability category by gender for students age 13 through 17: males comprise 65.8% of the disability. http://www2.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/2003/index.html.

18 National Center for Education Statistics, Table A-28-1. Number and percentage of students who were suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex and race/ethnicity: 2002, 2004, and 2006.

19 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fall 2005, Fall 2006, and 2006–07 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Winter 2005–06, Spring 2007, and Fall 2007. Enrollment, staff, and degrees conferred in postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV programs, by type and control of institution, sex of student, type of staff, and type of degree: Fall 2005, Fall 2006, and 2006–07. http://nces.ed.gov/fastFacts/display.asp?id=98.

20 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Earned Degrees Conferred, 1869–70 through 1964–65; Projections of Education Statistics to 2017; Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), “Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred” surveys, 1965–66 through 1985–86; and 1986–87 through 2006–07 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, “Completions Survey” (IPEDS-C:87-99), and Fall 2000 through Fall 2007. Table 268. Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2017–18 http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_268.asp?referrer=report.

21 Claudia Buchmann and Thomas A. DiPrete, “The Growing Female Advantage in College Completion: The Role of Family Background and Academic Achievement.” American Sociological Review, Volume 71, Number 4, August 2006.

22 D. Salahu-Din, H. Persky, and J. Miller, The Nation’s Report Card: Writing 2007, NCES 2008– 468, 2008. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Table A-9. Average scores and achievement-level results in NAEP writing for eighth-grade public school students, by gender and state. 2007.

23 J. Lee, W. Grigg, and P. Donahue, The Nation’s Report Card: Reading 2007, NCES 2007–496, 2007. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C. Table A-17. Average scale scores and achievement-level results in NAEP reading for eighth-grade public school students, by gender and state. 2007.

24 In 1980, only 14% of boys said they did not like school very much at all; by 2001, that had increased to 24%. Original source: University of Michigan, Institute for Social Research, Monitoring the Future Study, 1980 to 2001. Cited in National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women: 2004, p. 45, Figure 13: “How do you feel about school?”

25 NCES High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2007. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 2007. Table 6.—Status dropout rates and number and distribution of dropouts of 16- through 24-year-olds, by Table 6.— selected characteristics. October 2007.

26 Peg Tyre, “The Trouble with Boys.” Newsweek, January 30, 2006, p. 50.

27 Peg Tyre, “The Trouble with Boys.” Newsweek, January 30, 2006. Data from U.S. Department of Education.

28 National Center for Education Statistics, Table A-28-1: Number and percentage of students who were suspended and expelled from public elementary and secondary schools, by sex and race/ethnicity: 2002, 2004, and 2006.

29 Walter S. Gilliam, “Pre-kindergarteners Left Behind: Expulsion Rates In Prekindergarten Programs.” Foundation for Child Development Brief Series No. 3, 2005. New York.

30 Michael Gurian, Boys and Girls Learn Differently! A Guide for Teachers and Parents. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001.

31 Vital Health and Statistics, Series 10, Number 237, July 2008 “Diagnosed Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Learning Disability: United States, 2004–2006.” Table 1: Diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and learning disability (LD) among children 6–17 years of age, by selected characteristics: United States, 2004–2006. Boys: All ADHD – 11.8, All LD – 10.7, Girls: All ADHD – 4.8, All LD – 6.6. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/series/sr_10/Sr10_237.pdf.

32 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Fall 2005, Fall 2006, and 2006–07 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), Winter 2005–06, Spring 2007, and Fall 2007. Enrollment, staff, and degrees conferred in postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV programs, by type and control of institution, sex of student, type of staff, and type of degree: Fall 2005, Fall 2006, and 2006–07. http://nces.ed.gov/fastFacts/display.asp?id=98.

33 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), “Fall Enrollment in Colleges and Universities” surveys, 1970 and 1980; 1990 through 2006 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, “Fall Enrollment Survey” (IPEDS-EF:90-99), and Spring 2001 through Spring 2007; and Projections of Education Statistics to 2017. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October, selected years, 1970 through 2007. Table 190. Total fall enrollment in degree- granting institutions, by sex, age, and attendance status.

34 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Earned Degrees Conferred, 1869–70 through 1964–65; Projections of Education Statistics to 2017; Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), “Degrees and Other Formal Awards Conferred” surveys, 1965–66 through 1985–86; and 1986–87 through 2006–07 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, “Completions Survey” (IPEDS-C:87- 99), and Fall 2000 through Fall 2007. Table 268. Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2017–18. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d08/tables/dt08_268.asp?referrer=report.

35 Department of Education: 2009 Tables and Figures http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2009menu_tables.asp. Table 268. Degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2018–19 http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d09/tables/dt09_268.asp. See also http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/2000menu_tables.asp Table 248. Earned degrees conferred by degree-granting institutions, by level of degree and sex of student: 1869–70 to 2009–10. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d00/dt248.asp The graph and the calculation for total degrees were done by Mark Perry, professor of finance and business economics at the University of Michigan’s Flint campus. See also Richard Whitmire, Why Boys Fail: Saving Our Sons from an Educational System That’s Leaving Them Behind. New York: AMACOM, 2010.

36 M. Altarac and E. Saroha, “Lifetime Prevalence of Learning Disability Among U.S. Children.” Pediatrics, February 2007. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/content/full/119/Supplement_1/S77.

37 Catherine Christo, John Davis and Stephen E. Brock, Identifying, Assessing, and Treating Dyslexia at School. New York: Springer, 2009, p. 29.

38 Christina Hoff Sommers, The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

39 Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

40 Richard Whitmire, Why Boys Fail: Saving Our Sons from an Educational System That’s Leaving Them Behind. New York: AMACOM, 2010, p. 211.

41 NCES, Table 34. Percentage of high school seniors who participated in various school-related extracurricular activities, by sex: Various years, 1990 to 2001. See also Christina Hoff Sommers, The War Against Boys: How Misguided Feminism Is Harming Our Young Men. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.

42 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

43 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

44 NCES High School Dropout and Completion Rates in the United States: 2007. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 2007. Table 6.—Status dropout rates and number and distribution of dropouts of 16- through 24-year-olds, by Table 6.— selected characteristics: October 2007.

45 Editorial Projects in Education. “Diplomas Count 2008.” Education Week 27 (40), June 5, 2008.

46 Digest of Education Statistics, 2008. Table 226. Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by race/ethnicity, sex, attendance status, and level of student: Selected years, 1976 through 2007. 831,000 black men attended versus 1,545,3000 black women.

47 Erik Eckholm, “Plight Deepens for Black Men, Studies Warn.” New York Times, March 20, 2006. The comparable jobless percentages among white male dropouts is 34%; among Hispanics, 19%.

48 Erik Eckholm, “Plight Deepens for Black Men, Studies Warn.” New York Times, March 20, 2006.

49 Editorial Projects in Education, “Diplomas Count 2008.” Education Week 27 (40), June 5, 2008.

50 T. Mortenson, “The State of American Manhood.” Postsecondary Education Opportunity: Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, Number 181, 2006, p. 6.

51 T. Mortenson, “The State of American Manhood.” Postsecondary Education Opportunity: Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, Number 181, 2006, p. 9. The proportion of all jobs that are in agriculture is 1.6%.

52 Alan T. Lacey and Benjamin Wright, “Occupational Employment Projections to 2018.” U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Monthly Labor Review, November 2009.

53 Keith Dronen, et al, “Gender Similarities and Differences in Learning, Development and Performance.” District 39 Community Review Committee. Wilmette, Illinois, June 2006.

54 Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

55 T. Mortenson, “The State Of American Manhood.” Postsecondary Education Opportunity: Public Policy Analysis of Opportunity for Postsecondary Education, Number 171, September, 2006.

56 Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

57 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

58 Christianne Corbett, Catherine A. Hill and Andresse St. Rose, “Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education.” Washington, DC: American Association of University Women, 2008.

59 The Gurian Institute has trained more than 50,000 teachers about effective ways of working with boys’ different learning styles. See Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens, The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2005.

60 Harris Interactive, Values of Americans: A Study of Ethics and Character. Boy Scouts of America: Irving, Texas. May 2005. http://www.scouting.org.

61 For couples’ communication skills for adults, see Harville Hendrix, Getting the Love You Want. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2007. See also Warren Farrell, Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say. New York: Berkely Books, 2001. pp. 1–89, or his Cinematic Immersion method.

62 See http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/document/brochure/meread/meread.pdf.

63 Greg Hill, et al, Guys Read Manual, Fairbanks North Star Public Library’s Manual for Showing Young Guys that Books Can Be Fun And Men Like to Read, 2007.

64 Harlem Children’s Zone, “Promise Academy Charter Schools; Going Beyond the Walls of the Classroom.” http://www.hcz.org/programs/promise-academy-charter-schools.

65 Eagle Academy Public Charter School. Washington, DC. http://www.eagleacademypcs.org/default.asp?contentID=14.

66 For example, on June 22, 2010, the U.S. Department of Education released the results of a congressionally funded study revealing that, when compared with a control group, students who attended private schools (through the Opportunity Scholarship Program) in D.C. were 21% more likely to receive a high school diploma.

67 Jay Greene, (New York: Manhattan Institute, 2004). Greene demonstrated that students in schools of choice, which received only half the per-student funding of public school students, graduated at a 64% rate, versus a much lower 41% rate of a control group of more financially advantaged students in Milwaukee’s most selective public schools.

68 National Association for Single Sex Public Education. http://www.singlesexschools.org/schools-classrooms.htm.

69 National Association for Single Sex Public Education. http://www.singlesexschools.org/schools-classrooms.htm.

70 Roland G. Fryer, Jr. and Steven D. Levitt, “An Empirical Analysis of the Gender Gap in Mathematics.” NBER Working Papers 15430. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc., 2009.

71 See http://www.csbl.org/utility/sitemap.

72 Maryland State Department of Education, “William F. Goodling Even Start Family Literacy Program.” Updated August 20, 2010. http://www.marylandpublicschools.org/MSDE/programs/familylit/famevenstart/.

73 Conversation between Tracey Shors and Michael Gurian, 2005, as reported by Michael Gurian.

74 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File. 1999–2006. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006 Series 20 No. 2L, 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html.

75 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File. 1999–2006. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006 Series 20 No. 2L, 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html.

76 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File. 1999–2006. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006 Series 20 No. 2L, 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html.

77 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2005, with Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans. Table 46 (page 1 of 3): Death rates for suicide, according to sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1900–2003, p. 221. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/hus05.pdf#027.

78 Robin Simon and Anne Barrett, “Non-Marital Romantic Relationships and Mental Health in Early Adulthood: Does the Association Differ for Women and Men?” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, June, 2010. The study is of 1,000 unmarried young adults between 18 and 23.

79 Warren Farrell, Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say. New York: Berkely Books, 2001. Chapter 4, “How to Help Men Express Feelings.” See also Robin Simon and Anne Barrett, Journal of Health and Social Behavior, June, 2010 as well as Michael Gurian and Kathy Stevens. The Minds Of Boys: Saving Our Sons from Falling Behind in School and Life. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass, 2005.

80 Warren Farrell, Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say. New York: Berkely Books, 2001. Chapter 4, “How to Help Men Express Feelings,” and, on the disappointments in love that lead to suicide, see pp. 153, 166.

81 Augustine J. Kposowa, “Unemployment and Suicide: A Cohort Analysis of Social Factors Predicting Suicide in the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Psychological Medicine, January, 2001; 31(1):127–38.

82 Augustine J. Kposowa, “Marital Status and Suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health:, Vol. 54, April 2000, p. 256. The figure is 9.94 higher in divorced men than in divorced women. The 9.94 figure was obtained from Dr. Kposowa using information from Table 1 on p. 256. Personal correspondence with Warren Farrell, June 29, 2000.

83 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006 Series 20 No. 2L, 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html.

84 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2008 with Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: 2009. Table 45. Death rates for suicide, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2006.

85 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006. CDC WONDER On-line Database, compiled from Compressed Mortality File 1999–2006 Series 20 No. 2L, 2009. http://wonder.cdc.gov/cmf-icd10.html.

86 Inquiry by Tom Golden of Lanny Berman, director of the American Association of Suicidology. A program for adult men in Colorado is a collaborative project of the Colorado’s Office of Suicide Prevention, The Carson J Spencer Foundation, the Suicide Prevention Coalition of Colorado, Regis University and the American Foundation of Suicide Prevention. Contact Dr. Sally Spencer-Thomas.

87 CDC Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) query: Violence- Related All Injury Causes Nonfatal Injuries and Rates per 100,000. Fifty-nine percent of violent injuries were to males.

88 CDC Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) query: Violence- Related All Injury Causes Fatal Injuries and Rates per 100,000. Seventy-nine percent of violent deaths were to males. Surveillance for violent deaths—national violent death reporting system, 16 States, 2006. D. L. Karch, L. L. Dahlberg, N. Patel, T. W. Davis, J. E. Logan, H. A. Hill, L. Ortega; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). MMWR Surveillance Summaries, March 20, 2009; 58 (1):1–44.

89 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2008 with Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: 2009. Table 4346 (page 1 of 3). Death rates for firearm-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1970–2006. 2005.

90 CDC Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) query: Violence- Related All Injury Causes Fatal Injuries and Rates per 100,000. Seventy-five percent of drowning deaths were male.

91 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2008 With Chartbook. Hyattsville, MD: 2009. Table 4043 (page 1 of 4). Death rates for motor vehicle-related injuries, by sex, race, Hispanic origin, and age: United States, selected years 1950–2006. 2005.

92 CDC Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) query: “Violence- Related All Injury Causes Fatal Injuries and Rates per 100,000”. The ratio of violence-related deaths was 6.1 men per woman.

93 Judith Kleinfeld, “The State of American Boyhood.” Gender Issues 26:2. June, 2009: 113–129.

94 M. H. Meier, W. S. Slutske, A. C. Heath, N. G. Martin. “The Role of Harsh Discipline in Explaining Sex Differences in Conduct Disorder: A Study of Opposite-sex Twin Pairs.” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, July 2009; 37 (5):653–64.

95 B. Maughan, R. Rowe, J. Messer, R. Goodman, and H. Meltzer, “Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a National Sample: Developmental Epidemiology.” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 45 (3): 609–621, 2004.

96 U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, unpublished tabulation. Census 2000 PHC-T-26. Population in Group Quarters by Type, Sex and Age, for the United States: 1990 and 2000.

97 U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, unpublished tabulation. Census 2000 PHC-T-26. Population in Group Quarters by Type, Sex and Age, for the United States: 1990 and 2000.

98 U.S. Census Bureau, Census 2000, unpublished tabulation. Census 2000 PHC-T-26. Population in Group Quarters by Type, Sex and Age, for the United States: 1990 and 2000.

99 Harlem Children’s Zone. Family, Community and Health http://www.hcz.org/programs/family-community-a-health.

100 Component 3, on fathers, is significantly adapted from Warren Farrell’s Father and Child Reunion. New York: Putnam/Penguin, 2001, Introduction and Chapters 1 and 2.

101 President’s Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships: “A New Era of Partnerships: Report of Recommendations to the President,” March 2010. Nearly 4 in 10 (36%) of Hispanic children, and nearly 1 in 4 (25%) of white children live in father-absent homes.

102 J. A. Martin, B. E. Hamilton, P. D. Sutton, S. J. Ventura, et al, Births: Final Data for 2006. National Vital Statistics Reports: Volume 57:7. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2009. The exact proportion is 38.5%. Among white children, 26.6% are born out of wedlock.

103 Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen, “An Investigation of Fathers with 3–5-Year-Old Children.” Paper presented at the Social Research-Institute Ministerratskonferenz, Stockholm, Sweden, 27–28 April 1995, Chart 3, Psychosomatic Symptoms of the Parents and Development of the Children. Translated by David Bedard. E-mail, March 12, 1997. Dr. Christoffersen is with the Social Research Institute in Denmark. The study is especially significant because it examined more than one-quarter of all the 3- to 5-year-old children in Denmark who lived with their biological fathers (600 out of 2040). The study compared these children to a group of about 600 (out of 33,708) living with their biological mothers. Chart 2, “Parents Living Alone with 3- to 5-Year-Old Children.”

104 Paul Amato and Joan Gilbreth, “Nonresident Fathers and Children’s Wellbeing: A Meta-analysis.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61, 557–573. 1999.

105 Component 3, on fathers, should be read with three additional caveats. First, while children with involved fathers do much better statistically, many children who live with one parent grow up well- adjusted, and some who live with both do not. Second, while there are differences in fathers’ and mothers’ traditional parenting styles, almost all can be learned by either gender. Third, some women may fight to keep fathers out of their children’s lives because of alcoholism or child endangerment—therefore, the involved fathers may be disproportionately among the better fathers.

106 The picture of the male Barbary macaque and infant is from the New York Times, June 14, 2010, illustrating the article by Natalie Angier, “Paternal Bonds, Special and Strange.” Image by Andreas Ploss.

107 Kyle D. Pruett, “The Nurturing Male: A Longitudinal Study of Primary Nurturing Fathers,” in Fathers and Their Families. Stanley H. Cath, Alan Gurwitt, and Linda Gunsberg (eds.). Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press, 1989, p. 390.

108 Rachel Levy-Shiff, Michael A. Hoffman, Salli Mogilner, Susan Levinger, and Mario B. Mogilner, “Fathers’ Hospital Visits to their Preterm Infants as a Predictor of Father-Infant Relationship and Infant Development.” Pediatrics, Vol. 86, 1990, pp. 291–292. The authors are from Bar-Ilan University and Kaplan Hospital in Israel.

109 Rachel Levy-Shiff, Michael A. Hoffman, Salli Mogilner, Susan Levinger, and Mario B. Mogilner, “Fathers’ Hospital Visits to their Preterm Infants as a Predictor of Father-Infant Relationship and Infant Development.” Pediatrics, Vol. 86, 1990, pp. 291–292. The children with more paternal contact did better even when they had not had more maternal contact. The authors are from Bar-Ilan University and Kaplan Hospital in Israel.

110 Frank A. Pedersen, Judith L. Rubenstein, and Leon J. Yarrow, “Infant Development in Father- Absent Families.” Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 135, 1979, pp. 55–57.

111 The Binet IQ measurement was used. See L. J. Yarrow, R. P. Klein, S. Lomonaco, and G. A. Morgan, “Cognitive and Motivational Development in Early Childhood,” in B. Z. Friedlander, et al., Exceptional Infant 3, New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1974, as cited in Frank A. Pedersen, Judith L. Rubenstein, and Leon J. Yarrow, “Infant Development in Father-Absent Families,” Journal of Genetic Psychology, Vol. 135, 1979, p. 57.

112 Telephone interview conducted by Warren Farrell with Stephanie Carlson, Institute of Child Development, University of Minnesota, May 11, 2010, in combination with Annie Bernier and Stephanie Carlson, Caregiving and Child Executive Functioning, unpublished draft, 2010. See also N. Garon, S.E. Bryson, and I.M. Smith, Executive Function in Preschoolers: A Review Using an Integrative Framework in Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 134, pp. 31–60, 2008.

113 Richard Koestner, C. Franz, and J. Weinberger, “The Family Origins of Empathic Concern – A Twenty-Six-Year Longitudinal Study.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 58, No. 4, April, 1990, pp. 709–717.

114 See the discussion of empathy and its connection to fathers and life’s happiness in Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion. New York: Putnam/Penguin, 2001. pp. 30–31.

115 M. Main and D. R. Weston, “The Quality of the Toddler’s Relationship to Mother and to Father: Related to Conflict Behavior and the Readiness to Establish New Relationships.” Child Development, Vol. 52, 1981, pp. 932–940.

116 Hjern Anders, et al., Acta Paediatrica. 99: 920–924, June 2010. DOI: 10.1111/j.1651- 2227.2009.01638.x. Acta Paediatrica is a monthly peer-reviewed pediatric journal covering both clinical and experimental research. http://www.actapaediatrica.com.

117 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988. Vital and Health Statistics, p. 27. Table 13, Number of Children 3–17 Years of Age and Percent Treated for Emotional or Behavioral Problems in the Past 12 Months, by Family Type and Selected Demographic and Social Characteristics: United States, 1988. In the previous 12-month period, 2.7% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 8.8% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, were treated for emotional and behavioral problems.

118 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988, Vital and Health Statistics, p. 27, Table 13, Number of Children 17 Years of Age and Under and Percent Who Had Frequent Headaches in the Past 12 Months, by Family Type and Selected Demographic and Social Characteristics: United States. 1988. In the previous 12-month period, 2.5% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 4.1% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, had frequent headaches.

119 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988, p. 21, Table 7, Number of Children 17 Years of Age and Under and Percent Who Had Chronic Enuresis in the Past 12 Months, by Family Type and Selected Demographic and Social Characteristics: United States, 1988. In the previous 12- month period, 2.3% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 2.9% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, had chronic enuresis (bed-wetting).

120 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988, p. 20, Table 6, Number of Children 17 Years of Age and Under and Percent Who Had a Stammer or Other Speech Defect in the Past 12 Months, by Family Type and Selected Demographic And Social Characteristics: United States, 1988. In the previous 12-month period, 2.3% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 3.2% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, had a stammer or other speech defect.

121 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988, p. 10. In the previous 12-month period, 39% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 55.3% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, had one or more indicators of anxiety or depression.

122 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center for Health Statistics. Family Structure and Children’s Health: United States, 1988, p. 10. In the previous 12-month period, 34.9% of children living with their biological mother and father, and 51.1% of children living with a formerly married mother and no father, had one or more indicators of hyperactivity.

123 John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long Term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment” in Stuart Oscamp (ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual, Vol. 7: Family Processes and Problems. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987, p. 230.

124 Frank Mott, “When Is a Father Really Gone? Paternal-Child Contact in Father-Absent Homes.” Demography, Vol. 27, No. 4, November 1990, pp. 499–518.

125 John W. Santrock and Richard A. Warshak, “Father Custody and Social Development in Boys and Girls.” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 35, No. 4, Fall, 1979.

126 The only factor more important than father involvement was the child’s age. Robert H. Coombs and John Landsverk, “Parenting Styles and Substance Use During Childhood and Adolescence.” Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 50, May 1988, p. 479, Table 4. The factors considered were age, sex, ethnicity, social class, closeness to parent, parent trust, parental rules, parent strictness, etc. Age accounted for about 17% (.17 out of a maximum of 1) of the variation in drug use among the youth in their sample; positive father sentiment (closeness) accounted for another 10%, and no other factor accounted for more than 2%.

127 Carmen Noevi Velez and Patricia Cohen, “Suicidal Behavior and Ideation in a Community Sample of Children: Maternal and Youth Reports.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 273, 1988, pp. 349–356.

128 R. Dalton, et al, “Psychiatric Hospitalization of Pre-School Children: Admission Factors and Discharge Implications.” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 26, No. 3, May 1987, pp. 308–312.

129 H. S. Merskey and G. T. Swart, “Family Background and Physical Health of Adolescents Admitted to an In-Patient Psychiatric Unit, I: Principle Caregivers.” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 34, 1989, pp. 79–83.

130 Nicholas Davidson, “Life Without Father: America’s Greatest Social Catastrophe.” Policy Review, Winter, 1990, p. 42.

131 Christine Nord, DeeAnn Brimhall, and Jerry West, “Fathers’ Involvement in their Children’s Schools.” U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Washington, DC, 1997, pp. viii–ix.

132 Henry Biller, Paternal Deprivation: Family, School, Sexuality, and Society. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1974.

133 John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long Term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment” in Stuart Oscamp (ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual, Vol. 7: Family Processes and Problems. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987, p. 212.

134 Bryce J. Christensen, “America’s Academic Dilemma: The Family and the Schools.” The Family in America, Vol. 2, No. 6, June 1988.

135 Sheila Fitzgerald Krein and A. Beller, “Educational Attainment of Children from Single-Parent Families: Differences by Exposure, Gender, and Race.” Demography, Vol. 25, May 1988. pp. 403– 426.

136 E. M. Hetherington, “Effects of Father Absence on Personality Development in Adolescent Daughters.” Developmental Psychology, Vol. 7, 1972. pp. 313–326. Also Edward Teyber and Charles D. Hoffman. “Missing Fathers.” Psychology Today, April, 1987. pp. 36–38.

137 John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long Term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment” in Stuart Oscamp (ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual, Vol. 7: Family Processes and Problems, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987, p. 230.

138 John Guidubaldi, Joseph D. Perry, and Bonnie K. Nastasi, “Growing Up in a Divorced Family: Initial and Long Term Perspectives on Children’s Adjustment” in Stuart Oscamp, (ed.), Applied Social Psychology Annual, Vol. 7: Family Processes and Problems, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1987, p. 212.

139 Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen, “An Investigation of Fathers with 3–5-Year-Old Children.” Paper presented at the Social Research-Institute Ministerratskonferenz, Stockholm, Sweden, 27–28 April 1995, Chart 3, Psychosomatic Symptoms of the Parents and Development of the Children. Translated by David Bedard. E-mail, March 12, 1997. Dr. Christoffersen is with the Social Research Institute in Denmark. The study is especially significant because it examined more than one-quarter of all the 3- to 5-year-old children in Denmark who lived with their biological fathers (600 out of 2040). The study compared these children to a group of about 600 (out of 33,708) living with their biological mothers. Indicators of social skills included number of playmates and measures of empathy.

140 Smith and Jarjoura, “Social Structure and Criminal Victimization.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 25: 27–52, February 1988.

141 Sedlack and Broadhurst, The Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect: Final Report. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, DC, September 1996. http://www.childwelfare.gov/pubs/statsinfo/nis3.cfm.

142 Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen, “An Investigation of Fathers with 3–5-Year-Old Children.” Paper presented at the Social Research-Institute Ministerratskonferenz, Stockholm, Sweden, 27–28 April 1995, Chart 3, Psychosomatic Symptoms of the Parents and Development of the Children. Translated by David Bedard. E-mail, March 12, 1997. Dr. Christoffersen is with the Social Research Institute in Denmark. Specifically, 3% of children with their fathers felt victimized, vs. 10% of children with their mothers. The study is especially significant because it examined more than one-quarter of all the 3- to 5-year-old children in Denmark who lived with their biological fathers (600 out of 2040). The study compared these children to a group of about 600 (out of 33,708) living with their biological mothers.

143 Francis Ianni, The Search for Structure. New York: Free Press, 1989.

144 Glenn Sacks, “LA Gang Peace Negotiator Asked ‘How Many of the Gang Members You Deal With Live With Their Fathers?’” American Chronicle, December 10, 2008. http://www.americanchronicle.com/articles/view/84477.

145 Frank F. Furstenberg, Jr. and Kathleen Mullan Harris, “When and Why Fathers Matter: Impacts of Father Involvement on the Children of Adolescent Mothers.” Cited in Robert I. Lerman and Theodora J. Ooms (eds.), Young Unwed Fathers: Changing Roles and Emerging Policies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1993, pp. 127, 130. The sample size of all children in this portion of the study was 253. Among the sons of inner-city teenaged mothers, 15% had had a baby by age nineteen; none who had a close relationship with their biological father did.

146 Daniel Patrick Moynihan, “Half the Nation’s Children: Born Without a Fair Chance.” New York Times, September 25, 1988, p. E25. And these figures are just for whites. It’s even worse among blacks. See also Edward Teyber and Charles D. Hoffman, “Missing Fathers.” Psychology Today, April, 1987, pp. 36–38.

147 Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion. New York: Putnam/Penguin, 2001, Chapter One.

148 Marcia J. Carlson, “Family Structure, Father Involvement and Adolescent Behavioral Outcomes.” Journal of Marriage and Family 68 (1):137–154, 2006. This research was drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, begun in 1979, with updated “waves” of data to 2000.

149 E. Mark Cummings, Christine Merrilees, and Melissa Ward George, “Fathers, Marriages, and Families: Revisiting and Updating the Framework for Fathering in Family Context.” In Michael E. Lamb (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

150 Mogens Nygaard Christoffersen, “An Investigation of Fathers with 3–5-Year-Old Children.” Paper presented at the Social Research-Institute Ministerratskonferenz, Stockholm, Sweden, 27–28 April 1995, Chart 3, Psychosomatic Symptoms of the Parents and Development of the Children. Translated by David Bedard. E-mail, March 12, 1997. Dr. Christoffersen is with the Social Research Institute in Denmark. The study is especially significant because it examined more than one-quarter of all the 3- to 5-year-old children in Denmark who lived with their biological fathers (600 out of 2040). The study compared these children to a group of about 600 (out of 33,708) living with their biological mothers. See Chart 4, Psychosomatic Symptoms and Select Background Situations of the Parents.

151 K. Alison Clarke-Stewart and Craig Hayward, “Advantages of Father Custody and Contact for the Psychological Well-Being of School-Age Children.” Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 2, April–June 1996.

152 J. T. Cookston, S. L. Braver, W. A. Griffin, S. R. De Luse and J. C. Miles, “Effects of the Dads for Life Intervention on Interparental Conflict and Coparenting in the Two Years After Divorce.” Family Process, 46 (1), 123–137, 2007. In Michael E. Lamb, (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

153 Vickie Scott Grove, “Santa Clara County Family Wellness Court.” http://www.casaforchildren.org/site/c.mtJSJ7MPIsE/b.5552427/k.63B/Santa_Clara_County_Family _Wellness_Court.htm.

154 Douglas A. Smith and G. Roger Jarjoura, “Social Structure and Criminal Victimization.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 25, No. 1, February 1988, pp. 27–52.

155 Douglas A. Smith and G. Roger Jarjoura, “Social Structure and Criminal Victimization.” Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 25, No. 1, February 1988, pp. 27–52.

156 Raymond A. Knight and Robert A. Prentky, “The Developmental Antecedents of Adult Adaptations of Rapist Sub-Types.” Criminal Justice and Behavior, Vol. 14, December 1987, pp. 413–414. Knight and Prentky labeled this type of rapist as one with “displaced anger.”

157 Katrin Bennhold, “Paternity Leave Law Helps to Redefine Masculinity in Sweden.” New York Times, June 15, 2010, pp. A6 and A8.

158 Goran Henrikson, Director of Human Resources at Ericsson, quoted in Katrin Bennhold, “Paternity Leave Law Helps to Redefine Masculinity in Sweden.” New York Times, June 15, 2010, p. A8.

159 Michael E. Lamb, “Divorce and Parenting,” 2004. In C. B. Fisher and R.M. Lerner (eds.), Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science. pp. 794–796, New York: Sage. As cited in “Custody and Parenting Time: Links to Family Relationships and Well-being After Divorce,” William V. Fabricius, Sanford L. Braver, Priscila Diaz and Clorinda Schenck. In Michael E. Lamb (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

160 Robert Bauserman, “Child Adjustment in Joint-custody Versus Sole-custody Arrangements: A Meta-analytic Review.” Journal of Family Psychology, 16 (1), 91–102, 2002. As cited in “Custody and Parenting Time: Links to Family Relationships and Well-being After Divorce,” William V. Fabricius, Sanford L. Braver, Priscila Diaz and Clorinda Schenck. In Michael E. Lamb (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

161 Robert Bauserman, “Child Adjustment in Joint-custody Versus Sole-custody Arrangements: A Meta-analytic Review.” Journal of Family Psychology, 16 (1), 91–102, 2002. As cited in “Custody and Parenting Time: Links to Family Relationships and Well-being After Divorce,” William V. Fabricius, Sanford L. Braver, Priscila Diaz and Clorinda Schenck. In Michael E. Lamb (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

162 Michael E. Lamb, K. J. Sternberg, and R. A. Thompson. “The Effects of Divorce and Custody Arrangements on Children’s Behavior, Development, and Adjustment.” Family and Conciliation Courts Review, 35, 393–404, 1997. As cited in “Custody and Parenting Time: Links to Family Relationships and Well-being After Divorce,” William V. Fabricius, Sanford L. Braver, Priscila Diaz and Clorinda Schenck. In Michael E. Lamb (ed.), The Role of the Father in Child Development (5th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2010.

163 Warren Farrell, Father and Child Reunion. New York: Putnam/Penguin, 2001. Chapter 6, “Men’s ABC Rights,” pp. 126–160.

164 Anita Debro, “Bessemer Court Program Helps Make Men Better Fathers.” The Birmingham News, November 24, 2009. The program is in Bessemer City, Alabama. It has non-supporting, non- custodial fathers (so-called “deadbeat dads”) participate in a combination parenting/job-training program. A November 2009 report stated: “In the last four years, 375 men have completed the program. A large number of those men walked out of the program with jobs.” http://blog.al.com/birmingham-news-stories/2009/11/bessemer_court_program_helps_m.html.

165 As mentioned above, assuming both parents are fit, and are neither abusive nor putting the child’s life in danger.

166 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Weekly. November 27, 2009. Vol. 58 No. 46, pg. 1303. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates for the 10 Leading Causes of Death: National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2006 and 2007. Atlanta, Georgia: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. See also J. Q. Xu, K. D. Kochanek, S. L. Murphy, B. Tejada-Vera. Deaths: Final data for 2007. National Vital Statistics Reports web release; Vol. 58 No. 19. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. Released May 2010. http://www.menshealthnetwork.org/library/causesofdeath10mw.pdf.

167 E. Arias, B. L. Rostron, B. Tejada-Vera, United States Life Tables, 2005. National Vital Statistics Reports; Vol. 58 No. 10. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2010. Table 12. Estimated life expectancy at birth in years, by race and sex: Death-registration states, 1900–1928, and United States, 1929–2000.

168 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, MD. 2010. Table 24. Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, by race and sex: United States, selected years 1900–2006.

169 The Office of Indian Men’s Health was signed into law by President Obama in June, 2010.

170 U.S. General Accounting Office, Women’s Health: NIH Has Increased Its Efforts to Include Women in Research. May 2000, p. 24. GAO/HEHS-00-96. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/he00096.pdf.

171 U.S. Census Bureau, Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2008. September 2009. http://www.census.gov/prod/2009pubs/p60-236.pdf.

172 Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993 and Berkely Books, revised edition, 2000. Chapter 7, “Why Do Women Live Longer?” pp. 180–199.

173 Daniel J. Kruger, M. Randolph Nesse, “Sexual Selection and the Male:Female Mortality Ratio.” Evolutionary Psychology 2, 66–85, 2004. Daniel Kruger is of the University of Michigan School of Public Health. See also “Men Die Young, Even When They’re Old.” New Scientist 175, No. 2353: 20, July 27, 2002.

174 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Aging, “Older Women.” (n.d.) http://www.aoa.gov/naic/may2000/factsheets/olderwomen.html.

175 Christopher R. Tamborini, “The Never-Married in Old Age: Projections and Concerns for the Near Future.” Social Security Bulletin, Vol. 67 No. 2, 2007.

176 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women’s Health, “About the HHS Office On Women’s Health.” http://www.womenshealth.gov/owh/about/factsheet/owhfactsheet.pdf.

177 National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Fact Book Fiscal Year 2008. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/about/factbook/FactBookFinal.pdf.

178 American Cancer Society, “Probability of Developing Invasive Cancers Over Selected Age Intervals, by Sex, US, 2003–2005.” Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta GA: American Cancer Society, 2009.

179 National Center for Health Statistics, Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, Maryland. 2010. Table 24. Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, by race and sex: United States, selected years 1900–2006.

180 National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States, 2009: With Special Feature on Medical Technology. Hyattsville, Maryland. 2010. Table 24. Life expectancy at birth, at 65 years of age, and at 75 years of age, by race and sex: United States, selected years 1900–2006.

181 See http://www.indiancountrytoday.com/archive/95322644.html.

182 American Cancer Society, “Probability of Developing Invasive Cancers Over Selected Age Intervals, by Sex, US, 2003–2005.” Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta GA: American Cancer Society, 2009.

183 American Cancer Society, “Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans 2009–2010.” Cancer Facts & Figures 2009. Atlanta GA: American Cancer Society, 2009.

184 Otis W. Brawley, “Statement by Otis W. Brawley, MD, Chief Medical Officer, American Cancer Society, Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform.” March 4, 2010. http://oversight.house.gov/images/stories/Hearings/Committee_on_Oversight/2010/030410_Prostat e_Cancer/TESTIMONY-Brawley.pdf.

185 National Institutes of Health, “Estimates of Funding for Various Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC).” Table published February 1, 2010. http://report.nih.gov/rcdc/categories/.

186 See “For Men Only,” a publication of the American Cancer Society. Call 800-ACS-2345.

187 Sean Gregory, “The Problem with Football: Our Favorite Sport is Too Dangerous. How to Make
the Game Safer.” Time, February 8, 2010, pp. 36–43.

188 The YouTube clip is titled “Big Football Hit—Helmet to Helmet.” Cited in Sean Gregory, “The Problem with Football: Our Favorite Sport is Too Dangerous. How to Make the Game Safer,” Time, February 8, 2010, p. 41. Gregory also cites Chris Nowinski, former Harvard defensive tackle and pro-wrestler.

189 See a series by Alan Schwarz, including “Worker Safety Case on Dementia Tests NFL,” New York Times, April 6, 2010, p. 1, as well as the cover of Time, February 8, 2010. The article in Time on “The Crisis in High Schools” is by Buzz Bissinger. Photograph for Time by Stephen Lewis.

190 Alan Schwarz, “Worker Safety Case on Dementia Tests NFL,” New York Times, April 6, 2010, p. 1.

191 Alan Schwarz, “Worker Safety Case on Dementia Tests NFL,” New York Times, April 6, 2010, p. 1.

192 Alan Schwarz, “In NFL Fight, Women Lead the Way.” New York Times, April 11, 2010, Sports Sunday section, p. 1.

193 Flag football also has the potential to be widely inclusive of girls, whether on separate or co-ed teams.

194 Armen Keteyian, “Suicide Epidemic Among Veterans.” CBS News, November 13, 2007. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/11/13/cbsnews_investigates/main3496471.shtml.

195 Office of the Command Surgeon, U.S. Forces Afghanistan (USFOR-A) and Office of The Surgeon General, United States Army Medical Command, Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) 6, Operation Enduring Freedom 2009, Report. November 6, 2009. http://www.armymedicine.army.mil/reports/mhat/mhat_vi/MHAT_VI-OEF_Redacted.pdf.

196 Norma Carr-Ruffino, Diversity Success Strategies. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, p. 114.

197 Norma Carr-Ruffino, Diversity Success Strategies. Woburn, MA: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999, p. 114.

198 Author of 1996 study on part time work, reported in Australian Associated Press, April 17, 1996.

199 David Wessel, “Meet the Unemployable Man.” Wall Street Journal, May 1, 2010.

200 U.S. Census Bureau, 2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates, custom table. Among Black males 20–24, 51% are employed which means 49% are without jobs, although not necessarily unemployed, as that indicated that they are seeking employment.

201 David Wessel, “Meet the Unemployable Man,” Wall Street Journal, May 1, 2010.

202 Heather Boushey, “For Workers, The Grim News Just Keeps Coming.” Center for American Progress analysis of U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data. March 6, 2009. http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2009/03/grim_news.html. Also, Elisabeth Eaves, “In This Recession, Men Drop Out.” Forbes, April 10, 2009. http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/09/employment-men-women-recession-opinions-columnists- gender-roles.html.

203 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Economic News Release. Table A-1. Employment status of the civilian population by sex and age. Published online October 8, 2010. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.t01.htm.

204 Louis Uchitelle, “The Wage That Meant Middle Class.” New York Times, April 20, 2008; http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/20/weekinreview/20uchitelle.html.

205 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Employed persons by detailed occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2009. http://www.bls.gov/cps/cpsaat11.pdf.

206 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010–11 Edition: Overview of the 2008–18 Projections. http://www.bls.gov/oco/oco2003.htm.

207 U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, News Release: “The Employment Situation — December 2009.” Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations: 75% women. Education, training, and library occupations: 74% women. Court, municipal, and license clerks: 76% women. http://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/empsit_01082010.pdf.

208 Augustine J. Kposowa, “Unemployment and Suicide: A Cohort Analysis of Social Factors Predicting Suicide in the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Psychological Medicine, January, 2001; 31 (1):127–38. Also, Augustine J. Kposowa, “Marital Status and Suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health:, Vol. 54, April 2000, p. 256. The figure is 9.94 higher in divorced men than in divorced women. The 9.94 figure was obtained from Dr. Kposowa using information from Table 1 on p. 256. Personal correspondence with Warren Farrell, June 29, 2000.

209 Motoko Rich, “Factory Jobs Return, but Employers Find Skills Shortage.” New York Times, July 2, 2010.

210 U.S. Department of Labor, “High Growth Job Training Initiative.” March 16, 2009. http://www.doleta.gov/BRG/JobTrainInitiative.

211 U.S. Department of Education News Release, “Five States Chosen to Receive Technical Assistance in Developing ‘Green’ Career-Technical Programs of Study.” June 22, 2009. http://www2.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2009/06/06222009f.html.

212 Southern Regional Education Board, Technology Centers That Work. http://publications.sreb.org/2009/09V19_TCTW_Enhanced_Brochure.pdf.

213 Taro Fujimoto, “Vocational Schools on the Move.” Japan Today, undated. http://www.japantoday.com/category/executive-impact/view/vocational-schools-on-the-move.

214 Bettina Brown, “International Models of Career-Technical Education: Trends and Issues Alert No. 42.” U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, 2003. ERIC document ED475097. http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED475097.pdf.

215 Matti Kyro?, Vocational Education and Training in Finland. CEDEFOP (European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) Panorama Series: 130. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2006. http://www2.trainingvillage.gr/etv/publication/download/panorama/5171_en.pdf.

216 Bernd Hainmu?ller, “The Educational Structure of the German School System.” Teachers Training College, Offenburg, Germany. January 12, 2003. http://www.ltu.se/polopoly_fs/1.4767!7c7da33e.pdf.

217 Thomas Persing, “The Role of Apprenticeship Programs.” Yale National Initiative: On Common Ground. Number 3, Fall 1994. http://teachers.yale.edu/oncommonground/index.php?skin=h&page=03/07.

218 Sandra McGinnis, Bonnie Primus Cohen, Paul Wing, Tracy Whitaker and Toby Weismiller. Licensed Social Workers in the United States 2004, Supplement. Center for Health Workforce Studies and NASW Center for Workforce Studies, 2006.

219 Warren Farrell, Why Men Earn More: The Startling Truth Behind the Pay Gap—and What Women Can Do About It. New York: AMACOM, 2005.

220 Augustine J. Kposowa, “Unemployment and Suicide: A Cohort Analysis of Social Factors Predicting Suicide in the U.S. National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Psychological Medicine, January, 2001; 31 (1):127–38. Also, Augustine J. Kposowa, “Marital Status and Suicide in the National Longitudinal Mortality Study.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health:, Vol. 54, April 2000, p. 256. The figure is 9.94 higher in divorced men than in divorced women. The 9.94 figure was obtained from Dr. Kposowa using information from Table 1 on p. 256. Personal correspondence with Warren Farrell, June 29, 2000.

221 Working Minds is sponsored by the Carson J. Spencer Foundation. See http://thecarsonjspencerfoundation.blogspot.com.

222 Warren Farrell, Women Can’t Hear What Men Don’t Say. New York: Berkely Books, 2001.

223 Deborah Burton, “Are You Man Enough To Be a Nurse?” Nursing Education Perspectives, Jan– Feb, 2003. This is a collaborative effort among the Oregon Center for Nursing, K-12 public schools, and the media.

224 Michael Gurian and Barbara Annis, Leadership and the Sexes: Using Gender Science to Create Success in Business. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2008.

225 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, in cooperation with State, New York City, District of Columbia, and Federal agencies, Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, Table 4. Fatal occupational injuries by selected worker characteristics and selected event or exposure, 2008.

226 Today Show, NBC, June 3, 2010 (day 45 of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig spill). The new widow grieved that the response of Transocean was to present her with legal paperwork to limit Transocean’s liability.

227 Today Show, NBC, June 3, 2010 (day 45 of the Deepwater Horizon oil rig spill). The new widow grieved that the response of Transocean was to present her with legal paperwork to limit Transocean’s liability.

228 Michael Cooper, Gardiner Harris and Eric Lipton, “In Mine Safety, a Meek Watchdog.” New York Times, April 10, 2010, p. 1.

229 Picture accompanying article by Jeffrey Gettleman, “In Somalia, Children Carry Guns for U.S. Ally.” New York Times, June 14, 2010, p.1.

230 Warren Farrell, The Myth of Male Power: Why Men Are the Disposable Sex. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993 and Berkely Books, revised edition, 2000. Part I.

Contact WHCBM Steering Committee:

Glenn Barker TheWhiteHouseCouncil@gmail.com  PH: 630.890.3713